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Map of Punjab (Source: India-WRIS)



Punjab is the land where the Vedas were written and land of 'Sapta Sindhavah'. In the later years it saw the rise and fall of several dynasties like Mauryans, Bacterians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Mediaval history of Punjab saw a supremacy of Muslim dynasties like the Ghoris, the Slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughalaks, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Sikhism, which is an integral and vital part of Punjab was started in fifteenth century. The founder of the Sikh faith Guru Nanak was born in 1469. At that time Sikhism was a socio-religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was the tenth and last Guru, Guru Govind Singh son of Guru Teg Bahadur, who established the 'Khalsa', or the pure faith of Sikhs, in 1699. As laid down by him the Sikhs follow the path of five 'K's, Kesh, Kanga, Kachha, Karcha and Kripan. This was lead to the establishment of a Sikh kingdom, which was duly founded by Maharaj Ranjit Singh. His kingdom was spread over to Afghanistan and Lahore was his capital. But his successors were week and disunited and after two abortive Anglo-Singh wars, Punjab was annexed by the British Empire in 1849. Freedom movement had begun here before Mahatma Gandhi's arrival in the scene. The first massacre by the British empire took place under the British Brigadier General, called Dyer on 13th April 1919 at Jallianwala Bagh. The Namdhari sect of Punjab was the first rebel community against British raj. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Roy who played a leading role in the freedom movement. In August 1947, Punjab was divided on the basis of majority areas according to the religion followed by the people. Punjab's tale of woe did not culminate with independence and it had to face the holocaust of Partition along with displaced persons with harrowing memories. In 1966, the state was again divided into two separate states Punjab and Haryana on language basis.


Punjab is situated in the northwestern corner of the country. The state is bounded on north by Jammu and Kashmir, on northeast by Himachal Pradesh, on south by Haryana and Rajasthan and on west by Pakistan. The state may be divided into two major parts - sub-Shivalik parts and Satluj-Ghaggar plain. Sub-Shivalik parts covers the upper portion of the state includes districts like Ropar, Hoshiarpur, Gurudaspur districts. On the other hand Satluj- Ghaggar plain consists the remaining districts. The land of this region is fertile.
This state enjoys a semi-arid monsoon type of climate due to long distance from the sea. Summer temperature is very high, more specially in the southern parts, whereas winter is very cold. Usually there are three seasons, the summer, the winter and the rainy. This state characterised by a deficiency of rainfall over its part.Punjab districts are least forested, only the upper part districts have some forest. Major rivers of the state are Satluj, Ravi, Beas, Indus, Chenab and Ghaggar.


Punjab, one of the smallest states of India. It is bounded by Pakistan in the west, Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Himachal Pradesh in the north and northeast, Haryana in the east and southeast and Rajasthan in the southwest. Chandigrah is the state capital.


The subtropical continental location of Punjab reflects in its climate that varies from extremely hot and dry during the summer season to fairly cold and dry during the winter season. The lowest temperature during the cooler months of December and January is 5°C, and in the summer months of May and June the temperature reaches 44°C. Most parts of the state in summer are hot and humid. State of Punjab receives most of the rainfall from southwest monsoon, in the months of June to October. Average rainfall varies from 100 to 800 mm in different parts of state. Average annual rainfall for the state is 435.6 mm. More than 70% of the rainfall occurs in the months of July and August. The sub-Shiwalik region receives considerable amount of rainfall from December to March. It decreases gradually towards western side of the region. An important characteristic of the rainfall in Punjab is that it is highly variable in time and space.

Water Resources

Punjab state has a vast network of canal infrastructure. Canal as well as tube well irrigation play crucial role in the state. It is only in the sub-Siwalik belt covering most of Rupnagar, Hoshiarpur and parts of Gurdaspur and Patiala districts that canal irrigation is not developed. Canals are the dominant means of irrigation in the western half of the state. In central Punjab, canal irrigation is important but the area is irrigated with tube wells also. Canal irrigation is almost absent in the foothill districts of the state because of higher level and undulating nature of the land surface.

Inter-state Agreements


  • Agriculture
  • Industry


Punjab is one of the industrially developed state in the country.The small-scale units produced a large varieties of industrial products like bicycle and its parts, sewing machines, hand tools, machine tools, auto parts, electronic goods, sports items, surgical and leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, nuts and bolts, textiles, sugar, vegetable oils etc.


  • Irrigation
  • Power
  • Transport
  • Health
  • Education
  • Telecommunication


Punjab is the most irrigated state in the country. Fourty percent of the irrigation comes from the harnessing of its rivers and the sixty percent comes from irrigation pumps in the fields installed by its enterprising farmers. Important irrigation projects are Bhakra Nangal Complex including Bhakra Dam, Bhakra main line, Nangal hydel channel, Ganguwal and Kotla project, Harike Barrage, Sirhind Feeder; Madhopur; Pong dam; Mukerian hydroelectric project; Madhopur-Beas link project and Satluj-Beas link project etc.

Hydro Power



Important railway junctions are Bathinda, Amritsar, Ferozepur, Ludhiana, Rajpura etc. Rail communication with Pakistan also emanates from Punjab (Amritsar).


Important airports of the state are Bathinda, Amritsar, Chandigarh and Ludhiana. There are four civil aviation clubs at Ludhiana, Amritsar, Patiala and Jalandhar and one domestic airport at Chandigarh, International Airport at Rajasansi (Amritsar) and two aerodromes at Patiala and Sahnewal (Ludhiana).


Punjab has a large number of places of tourist interest. Some of them are Golden Temple, Durgiana Mandir and Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Takhat Keshgarh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Bhakra Dam, Mughal Monument Complex, Aam and Khas Bagh and Roze Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed at Sirhind with graves of Afghan rulers, Sodal temple at Jalandhar and Ram Tirath etc.

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