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Hydrological Observation Stations Map

Hydrological Observation Stations Map


Located in peninsular India, the Pennar basin extends over states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka having an area of 55,213 with maximum length and width of 433 km and 266 km. The basin lies between 77°1’ to 80°10’ east longitudes and 13°18’ to 15°49’ north latitudes. The fan shaped basin is bounded by the Erramala range on the north, by the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges of the Eastern Ghats on the east, by the Nandidurg hills on the south and by the narrow ridge separating it from the Vedavati valley of the Krishna Basin on the west. The other hill ranges in the basin to the south of the river are the Seshachalam and Paliconda ranges. The Pennar (also known as Uttara Pinakini) is one of the major rivers of the peninsula. The Pennar rises in the Chenna Kasava hill of the Nandidurg range, in Chikkaballapura district of Karnataka and flows towards east eventually draining into the Bay of Bengal. The total length of the river from origin to its outfall in the Bay of Bengal is 597 km. The principal tributaries of the river joining from left are the Jayamangali, the Kunderu and the Sagileru whereas the Chiravati, the Papagni and the Cheyyeru joins it from right. The major part of basin is covered with agriculture accounting to 58.64% of the total area and only 4.97% of the basin is covered by water bodies. The basin spreads over 14 parliamentary constituencies (2009) comprising 10 of Andhra Pradesh and 4 of Karnataka.

Salient Features of Pennar Basin
Basin Extent Longitude
77° 1’ to 80° 10’ E
13° 18’ to 15° 49’ N
Length of Pennar River (Km) 597
Catchment Area ( 55213
Average Water Resource Potential (MCM) 6320
Utilizable Surface Water Resource (MCM) 6900
Live Storage Capacity of Completed Projects (MCM) 2809.00
Live Storage Capacity of Projects Under Construction (MCM) 440.0
Total Live Storage Capacity of Projects (MCM) 3249.0
No. of Hydrological Observation Stations (CWC) 8
No. of Flood Forecasting Stations (CWC) 1


Pennar basin extends over an area of 55213 sq. km. which is nearly 1.7% of the total geographical area of the country. It is bounded on the north by the Erramala range, on the east by the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges of the Eastern Ghats, on the south by the Nandidurg hills and on the west by the narrow ridges separating it from the Vedavati valley of the Krishna basin. The basin lies in the States of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The State-wise distribution of drainage area is given below:

StateDrainage area (sq. km.)
Adndhra Pradesh48276

The important soil types found in the basin are red soils, black soil, sandy soil and mixed soil. The culturable are of the basin is about 3.54 M. ha which is about 1.8% of the total culturable area of the country.

River System

Pennar river rises from the Chenna Kesava hills of the Nandi ranges of Karnataka and flows for about 597 km before outfalling into Bay of Bengal. The Principal tributaries of the river are the Jayamangal, the Kunder, the Sagileru, the Chitravati, the Papagni and the Cheyyeru.

Status of Surface Water Development

During the pre-plan period most of the projects constructed in the basin were medium and minor schemes. Tungabhadra high level canal in Krishna basin irrigated areas in Pennar basin also. The only major project in the basin is the Somasila project.

Urban Center's and Industries

The only important town in the basin is Nellore. With limited water and power potential and mineral resources, the scope for industrial development is limited in the basin. There are no major industries. The existing small industries are mostly based on agricultural produce such as cotton weaving, sugar mills, oil mills, rice mills etc. Beedi, paints and varnishes, glass and ceramics, matches and soaps are some other small industries.

Hydrologic Network

Hydrological observations in the basin are carried out by the Central and State Governments. The Central Water Commission maintains 8 H.O. sites in the basin. In addition, gauge-discharge data are available at 5 sites established by the State Governments.


The basin lies in a zone of poor rainfall and hence is frequently hit by famine. The drought-prone Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh partly lies in this basin.

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