The Pamba, 176 km in length is the third longest river in Kerala. It is formed by the confluence of the Pamba Aar, Kaki Aar, Arudhai Aar, Kakkad Aar and Kall Aar. The Pamba Aar rises in the Peermedu Plateau at an elevation of 1,670 m. The Kaki Aar, which forms the major tributary of the Pamba River is a much larger stream at the beginning than the main river. The Pamba River, after receiving the Kaki Aar flows in a Westerly direction till it is joined by the Arudhai Aar. At Narayanamuzhi, it turns and follows a South-Easternly direction until the Kakkad Aar Joins it. Beyond the confluence, the river flows in a Southerly direction up to Vadasserikkara where it is joined by the Kall Aar which has its origin in the Valanjakkatti Malai. The catchment area of the river is 2,235 sq km. There are two Hydrological Observation Stations maintained by CWC on this river/Tributory ie at Kalloppara & Malakkara.

At Pandanad the river bifurcates, one branch taking a Westerly course. The Manimala joins the Pamba in its Neeretupuram branch. The river thereafter flows Northwards and falls into the Vembanad lake through several branches.

The Pamba basin experiences good rain fall, moderate temperature and humid atmosphere. The South West and North East monsoon have great influence over the climatic condition of the basin. Even though the coastal regions of the basin experience hot with high humidity, the hilly region is generally cold. As per the I.M.D observations, the normal mean daily temperature varies from 22.6°c to 32.7°c. The average annual rainfall varies from 2276 mm to 4275 mm. The wind speed varies from 8.5 to 13.6 km/hr.

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