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Map of Meghalaya (Source: India-WRIS)



Prior to 1970, this state was an integral part of undivided Assam. The capital city Shillong was the capital of the Assam. On 2nd April 1970, Meghalaya was created as an autonomous state. Meghalaya got the full-fledged state status on January 21st 1972.


Meghalaya is bounded by Assam on its east, north and north-west and by Bangladesh on the south and south-west. The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills which form the central and eastern parts of Meghalaya are an imposing plateau with rolling grassland, hills and river valley. The state has a number of rivers but none of them are navigable. Some of the rivers are Ildek, Dudnai, Krishnai, Jinari, Didak, Jinjiram, Mahadeo, Moheshkali, and Someshwari. Nearly 37.5% area of the total land is under forest.The climate of the central and eastern Meghalaya is conducive, whereas in the western Meghalaya, except for the winter, it becomes oppressive. Meghalaya, known for its clouds and rainfall. The Mawsynram village receives the world's highest rainfall, on the average this is about 750 cm or about 250 inches.


The state is surrounded by Assam state in the north and east and by Bangladesh in the south and west.


Meghalaya literally means the 'Abode of Clouds'. As the name suggests the state is associated with clouds and rains. The climate of Meghalaya is generally very humid. It is directly influenced by the south west monsoon and the north east winter winds. The four main seasons of Meghalaya are Spring (March to April), Monsoon (May to September), Autumn (October to November) and Winter (December to February). The rainfall is heaviest in south eastern Garo hills and decreases in the central regions and in the north. Cherrapunji-Mawsynram region receives the heaviest rainfall with an annual average of 12670 mm. The average rainfall in the state is 12000 mm. The temperature starts warming up with the advent of spring and reaches the maximum in the summer (monsoon) months of May and June. The winter is quite severe with minimum temperature coming down to as low as 2° C in the Khasi Hills. April and May are the warmest months and January is the coldest month.


  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Mines & Minerals


Agriculture is the main source of occupation of the state. Nearly 80% of the state's population depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood. Jhum cultivation (old tribal habit of cultivation) is still practised in this state. This cultivation practice adds to the problems because it results in soil erosion and destruction of forests. Rice and Maize are the main food crops of the state. The cash crops are potato, turmeric, ginger, blackpepper, arecanut, betel vine, tapioca, short staple cotton, jute, mesta, mustard and rape seed. The agro-climatic variations of the state supports the horticulture production. The state is renowned for its oranges, pineapple, banana, jackfruit and temperate fruits like plum and peaches.


Meghalaya is a industrially backward state. There is a public sector cement factory in Cherrapunjee. Besides this there are mini cement plant at Damas and Sutnga. The tantalum capacitor unit at Umiam-Khawan is in production. Apart from these there are a number of small-scale industries like bakeries, furniture making, steel fabrication, tyre retreading, spice. The Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) assisting the industrial units by way of term loans and by participating equity capital.

Mines & Minerals

Meghalaya has rich natural resources like limestone and coal. The quality of the coal is not good due to high sulphur content. Other mineral deposits are silimanite, feldspar, glass sand, dolomite, fire clay, quartz etc.


  • Irrigation
  • Transport


The irrigation potential is much larger than the achievement.



Umroi, is the only airport of the state and it is located 35 km away from the state capital Shillong.


The entire state is full of lush green vegetation and presents a soothing sight to the people from the plains and to all lovers of nature. Shillong, the state capital is the best beautiful hill resort in the north-eastern region. It is a place of great interest with its orchids and tree-lined boulevards. Shillong has a number of tourist attractions like Ward's Lake, Lady Hydari Park, Polo Ground, Mini Zoo, Elephant Falls, Shillong peak, the golf course etc. Cherrapunjee, which remains a perennial source of interest to the visitors because of its record rainfall. Simsang valley in the Garo hills is also delighted the tourists.

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