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Map of Manipur (Source: India-WRIS)



Manipur, has been known to Indian tradition for a long time. The Mahabharata tells us that the hero Arjuna married princes Chitrangada of Manipur and their son Babrubahana fought bravely in the famous Kurukshetra battle. According to historians, Pakhangba established his kingdom in 33 AD and his followers ruled this state upto 1891. The British who were expanding their rule in all directions reached Manipur in 1891. The Azad Hind Fauz, of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose entered India through this state, but ultimately they were defeated by the British forces. Imphal, the state capital has acquired a special place in the short period but glorious history of the men in uniform under Netaji's inspiring leadership. In September 1949, the Maharaja of Manipur signed an agreement for the merger of the state with the Indian Union. In 1950-51, an advisory form of government was introduced. Later in 1963, a Legislative Assembly of 30 elected members and three nominated was established under the Union Territories Act. The status of the Administrator was raised from Chief Commissioner to the status of Lt. Governor w.e.f. 19 December 1969.Manipur attained full-fledged statehood on 21 January 1972.


Manipur is bounded by Nagaland on north, Mizoram on south, Mynamar on east and Cachar district of Assam on west. Geographically, the state is divided into two tracts, the hills and the plains. The eastern wing of the Himalayas, specially its lower hills, constitute an important feature of the landscape of Manipur. Some of the mountains are quite high like a peak on the Nagaland-Manipur border which is more than 3,000 meters. Barak and its tributaries constituted the plains of the state. There are a number of rivers in the state. Some of them are Barak, Manipur, Iril, Jiri, Makru, Irang, Khuga, Chapki, Tizo etc. The state's capital Imphal is situated in the bank of Barak. Nearly 60% of the total area is under forest. Manipur is the abode of Shiroy Lily (Lilium Macklinae), the paradise flower which is not found elsewhere in the world. The state enjoys a typical monsoonal climate with variants, ranging from tropical to temperate conditions. The rapid changes in topography result in climatic changes in the short distances. This state receives plenty of rainfall, the average rainfall of the state is 210 cm.


It is bounded by Nagaland in the North, Mizoram in the South and Assam in the West. It faces the international boundary with Myanmar in the East.


The climate of Manipur is moderate. Climate in the western part of the state is tropical whereas the rest part of the state experiences sub tropical climate with distinct summer, winter and rainy seasons. The valley gets the reflection of the heat of the summer and the cold of the winter from the neighboring hills. Average annual rainfall ranges from 1250 mm to 2700 mm. The months of November, December, January and February remain dry and the remaining eight months are more or less rainy. January is the coldest month and May-June are hottest months.


  • Agriculture
  • Industry


Agriculture is the main source of occupation of the state. Due to heavy rainfall forests are abundant and the Jhum cultivation (old tribal habit of cultivation) continues. Rice is the dominant crop and staple food of the state. Maize, pulses, oilseeds, sugarcane, vegetables and potatoes are among the other crops.


Manipur is an industrially backward state. Handloom and handicrafts are the traditional cottage industries.


  • Irrigation
  • Transport


With its vast water resources Manipur offers much scope for irrigation. Within a short period of time this state has made a remarkable progress in irrigation field.



Imphal is the only airport of the state and is connected with Silchar, Aizawl, Guwahati Calcutta and Delhi by air service.


Imphal, the capital of the state is the main tourist attraction of the state. The important tourist places of the state are Shri Shri Govindaji Temple, Khwairamband Bazar (Ima Market), War Cemeteries, Saheed Minar, Nupi Laal (Women's War) Memorial, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Bishnu Tample at Bishnupur, Sendra, Moreh, Siroi Hills, Siroi Village, Dzuko Valley etc. Polo is one of the major attractions of the tourists. Manipur has a number of folk dances. These dances have both grace and vigour and appeal to the viewers for their vitality as well as naturalness.

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