Jammu and Kashmir

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Map of Jammu & Kashmir (Source: India-WRIS)



There are many legends on Kashmir. According to Hindu mythology, Kashmir was created by Kashyap Rishi (Nilmat Purana & Rajtarangini). Emperor Ashok ruled this state in 3rd century B.C. and introduced Buddhism in this valley. Later Kushan king Kanishka ruled this state. In the 6th century Kashmir came under the control of Huns and regained freedom in 530 AD. Thereafter Gupta dynasty ruled this state until the period of Vikramaditya. After the decline of Vikramaditya, Lalitaditya ruled this state in 697-738 A.D. He was a famous builder. Muslims came to this area during 13th century A.D. Famous Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abedin was a noted patron of music and dance. He ruled this state in 1420-70 and his successor ruled till 1586. Kashmir passed into the hands of Mughals in the period of Akbar. Mughal rulers were strong in this region prior to 1752, when Afgan ruler Ahmed-Shah Abdali took control of this state. Within a month of partition of India into India and Pakistan in August 1947 Pakistan sent the raiders, later to be identified as Pakistan's own troops, into Kashmir valley. But after October 24 1947 Kashmir valley's accession to India, the Indian army went into action. The Indian army pushed back the raiders until the UN-enforced cease fire stopped fighting on January 1, 1949 when two-thirds of the state was cleared of the invaders.
The history of Jammu is quite old. It finds a mention in the epic Mahabharata. This region was ruled by Dogra rulers. Raja Maldev and Raja Ranjit Dev are the famous Dogra rulers. After Raja Ranjit Dev the Jammu's Dogra regime became weak and Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab took over the state. Ranjit Singh handed over this state to one of his strongest governors and a scion of Dogra ruling family. His successors ruled the state till 1947. The Dogra King Hari Singh merged the state with the Indian Union.


Jammu & Kashmir is situated between 32°17' and 36°58' north latitude and 73°26' and 83°30' east longitude. It is located in the extreme north of the country. It is bounded on north by China, on east by Tibet, on south by Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and on west by Pakistan. Geographically this state is divided into four zones - the mountainous and semi-mountainous plain known as Kandi belt, hills including Siwalik ranges, mountains of Kashmir valley and Pir Pangal range and Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil.This state has a number of lakes, rivers, rivulets and glacial regions. The important rivers of this state are Indus, Chenab and Sutlej (Jhelum). There are extreme variations in climate in the state, due to its location and topography. The temperature of this state varies spatially. Leh is coldest and Jammu is the hottest In winter night temperatures go down below zero and very often experience snowfall.


Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of the Union of India. The state shares international border with China and Afghanistan in the north, Tibet in the east and Pakistan in the west. The states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh form its southern border. Major parts of the Jammu & Kashmir state represent high and rugged mountainous terrain.


The climate of the state ranges from the scorching heat of the plains of (Jammu Division) to the snow-capped heights of Gulmarg (Kashmir) and the mud peak of Mount Godwin Austin (Ladakh) 21,265 feet above sea level. Broadly, the state of Jammu and Kashmir comprises of three distinct climatic regions: cold arid desert areas of Ladakh, temperate Kashmir Valley, and the humid sub-tropical region of Jammu. The mean annual rainfall in cold arid zone (Ladakh region) varies from 100 mm to 300 mm received by western disturbance. The annual rainfall in temperate region (Kashmir valley & Pir Panjal) varies from 600 – 900 mm and added with snowfall. Leh is the coldest and Jammu is the hottest area. Mean monthly temperature is lowest in January and highest in July except in Jammu where highest temperature is experienced in June. Mean monthly temperature in January varies from –17°C at Drass to 14°C at Jammu. January 15 to March 15 is ice cold season when temperature in most of the areas in Kashmir is below 0°C. It snows during winter.

Water Resources

State of Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers. Jhelum, Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are major rivers flowing through the state.


  • Agriculture
  • Industry


Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 80 per cent people in Jammu & Kashmir. Major food crops are wheat, paddy and maize. Barley, jowar and bajra are cultivated in some parts of the state.Agro-climatic condition of this state supports horticulture. About 5 lakh families directly or indirectly related with horticulture activities.


Handicrafts, the traditional industry, are receiving top priority in view of employment potential and demand for wood carving, paper-machine, carpets, shawls, embroidery etc Carpets earn a substantial foreign exchange.


  • Irrigation
  • Power
  • Transport
  • Education
  • Telecommunication


Special initiative has taken for flood control, drinking water supply and irrigation of Jammu & Kashmir.



At present there are railway connection upto Jammu. Jammu to Udhampur railway connection line works is in progress. Extension of railway line upto Srinagar and beyond and the old Mughal route is approved.


The major airports of the state are Srinagar, Jammu and Lah.


Education has always received the utmost attention in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Education is totally free. Terrorist activities have hampered the education system of this state. They have a special fondness for burning down schools as though destruction of such facilities redound to their glory.


Kashmir valley is described as a paradise on earth. Major tourist places are Chashma Shahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, etc in Srinagar; Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg, etc. In the Valley, various ancient temple, Buddhist rites, scenic beauty in Ladakh, Vaishno Devi temple and Panitop near Jammu etc. When the heat in the plains of India become oppressive the people's thoughts turn to the hills and many thus used to visit the Kashmir valley. They often lived in the house boat. But at present the flow of tourists in the Kashmir valley was interfered by the ugly crimes committed by the Pakistan-inspired terrorists. The famous shrine of Mother Goddess Vaishnodevi is visited by thousands of pilgrimage on foot or horseback.

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