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Map of Haryana (Source: India-WRIS)



Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The state was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata. Kurukshetra, the scene of the epic battle between the Kaurvas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The state continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. On the plains of Panipat three historic battles were fought, the first one between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526, in which Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi; second between Hemu and Akbar in 1556, in which Akbar defeated Hemu; and the third one between Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afganistan and Sadashivrao Bhau, the son of Peswa Balaji Bajirao in 1761, in which Bhau died in the battle. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India's Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the re-organization of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged state.


The state is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana and is encompassed by it on three sides. Haryana is seventeenth largest state in the country. It has the Shivalik hills in the north and river Yamuna in the east. The Aravalli range, which stretches from Delhi to Gujarat, also acts as Haryana's south-western boundary. The river Ghaggar provides a kind of boundary in the west of the state. Haryana has clear-cut distinction in its northern, eastern, western and southern regions. All the four regions differ from one another in relief, climate, soils, sub-soil, water characteristics, economic development and population densities. The northern part is hilly, the eastern part is getting higher rainfall, fertile soil and slopes north to south with a height between 700 and 900 feet. The south-western part is dry, sandy and barren. Ghaggar is the main river of the state; it flows through the northern fringe of the state to a part of Punjab and back into Haryana before it finally enters Rajasthan to disappear there. The other river is Saraswati, which is a rain feed river flows into small pools in parts of Haryana. It is very hot in summer and markedly cold in winter. The maximum temperature in the months of May and June goes as high as 46o C. There are two well-marked seasons of rainfall in the state - the monsoon period falling from the middle of June till September and winter rains which occur from December to February.


Haryana State extends between 27°39' to 30°55' North latitudes and 74°27' to 77°36' East longitudes. Punjab and Himachal in the North, Rajasthan in the South and West and Uttar Pradesh in the East bound the state. Chandigarh is the state capital.


The climate of the state is subtropical, semi-arid to sub humid, continental and monsoon type. The state has three distinct climatic regions namely hot arid region, hot semi arid region and hot sub-humid region.

Water Resources

River Yamuna flows along eastern boundary of the state. The river Ghaggar is its main seasonal river. Markand river is another seasonal river which originates from lower Shivalik hills.


  • Agriculture
  • Industry


Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 80 per cent people in Haryana. Various measures have been taken to raise the standard of living of its farmers. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, barley and pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the State. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds. New crops like sunflower, soyabean and fruits and vegetables are also being encouraged. Efforts are being made to encourage intensive and extensive farming in the State. Haryana is famous for its cattle. The Central government's dairy research institute at Karnal in Haryana played a big role in Haryana emerging as a major producer of milk.


Haryana's achievement in the industrial sector has been quite phenomenal. Haryana accounts for four-fifth's of the country's total passenger car production, two-thirds of motorcycles and tractors and one-fourth of total production of cycles and sanitary wares. Panipat has earned the reputation of being the “Weaver City” of India for its exquisite, hand-tufted wollen carpets and colourful handloom products. One of the most remarkable achievements is on the export front.


  • Irrigation
  • Power
  • Transport
  • Health
  • Education
  • Telecommunication


The irrigation network has made Haryana into one of the frontline states of India in terms of food grain production. Haryana is a beneficiary of the multi-purpose project in Sutlej and Beas, sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan. Major irrigation projects are Western Yamuna Canal, Bhakhra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal. Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes. It is a new endeavour that gave practical shape to the lift irrigation for the first time in India. The Jui, Sewani, Loharu and Jawahar lal Nehru lift irrigation schemes have helped to carry irrigation water against gravity flow to arid areas. This has served as an effective check against the advance of the Rajasthan desert. Techniques of Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation have been introduced in the highly undulating and sandy tracts of Haryana. The controversy between Haryana and Punjab over the Sutlej Yamuna link, which would bring additional water to the state, has not yet been settled but the state has an extensive tube well system thanks to the enterprises of its farmers and the spread of electricity to all the villages of the state. The State undertook implementation of the six-year Haryana Water Resources Consolidation Project from 1994-95. The project objectives are to manage the total available water resources efficiently and economically to improve equitable distribution of water amongst the beneficiaries by rehabilitating the existing canal and drainage system.



In Haryana all villages stand connected with metalled roads. 4-laning of National Highway No. 1 from Murthal (Delhi border) to Karnal has been completed and the work from Karnal to Punjab border is in full swing. Similarly, NH-2 from Ballabgarh to U.P. border has been completed and opened to traffic.


Rail routes from Delhi to Agra, Ajmer, Ferozepur and Chandigarh cross through the State. Ambala, Panipat and Kurukshetra are important railway stations. There is a railway workshop at Jagadhari.


There are five civil aerodromes in the State viz., Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.


Some of the important tourist places are: Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Chakarvarty Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodel), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Dharuhera), Gauriyye (Bahadurgarh), Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bhishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore). Surajkund and Badkhal Lake near Delhi, Sultanpur bird sanctuary (Sultanpur, Gurgaon) and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The Surajkund Crafts Mela of international fame is held every year in the month of February.

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