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Map of Gujarat (Source: India-WRIS)



Gujarat history goes back to 2000 B.C. It is believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura and settle on the west coast of Saurashtra, which later known as Dwarka. Several Hindu dynasties ruled this state like the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Pratihars etc. In the reign of Chalukyas (Solankis) Gujarat witnessed prosperity and progress. Mahmud the Sultan of Ghazni, plundering the state quite a number of times. In spite of his attack the Chalukyas able to maintain the prosperity of the state. After Chalukyas the state was under the Muslims, Marathas and British rule. In the British regime the Gujarat has two parts - one was under the British and another was princely state. After independence the present state Gujarat was created in May 1960 by merging the Union Territory of Kachch, the Saurashtra alongwith the former British Gujarat (which was a part of the bigger bilingual state of Bombay).


It is situated on the west coast of India. The state is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north and north-east respectively, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Maharashtra in the South. The state has an area of 1,96,024 sq. km., the seventh largest state in terms of area in India. While the sea encircles the state right from the southern parts to the extreme north in the peninsula, the state mostly consists of plain land interspersed with low hills or small mountains extending from Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Aravalli ranges are extended from Rajasthan and in the east there is Satpura hills. Aravalli ranges forms the Pavagadh region, near Baroda and merges itself with the Vindhyas. The state has mainly three geographical regions - the mainland; the peninsular region of Saurashtra and the Kutch region, which has not only a large area of desert land, known as Rann of Kutch. The mainland has black and fertile soil and alluvial soil. The Saurashtra soils formed of deccan lava and in Kutch we find alluvial sandy soil.
Narmada, Sabarmati, Mahi, Tapi are the main rivers. Sabarmati has its origin in Dhebar Lake in Rajasthan. The state's biggest city Ahmedabad is situated on the bank of this river. It has several tributaries like the Hathmati, Vatrak and Meshwo. Mahi and Narmada originated from Madhya Pradesh. Mahi has several tributaries like Bhadar, Anas, Panam and Meshro and Narmada has only one tributary namely the Karjan. The famous city Surat is located on the bank of river Tapi. Apart from this there are rivers like Hirni, Kapila, Ojhat, the Kamb and Surekh in the Gir forest area, Brahmani, Machchu in Kutch are. The rivers in the Kutch area flowing north disappear into desert and those flowing southwards fall into the sea. The state has a long coastline of over 1,600 km.
As the tropic of Cancer passes through the northern border of Gujarat, the state has an intensely hot or cold climate. But the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Cambay in the west and the forest-covered hills in the east soften the rigours of climatic extremes. The maximum temperature varies from 36.7°C to 43.3°C in summer and the minimum between 20C and 18.30C from November to February. There is much variation in the rainfall in the state from an average of 33 cm in Kutch and parts of Saurashtra to 152 cm in the southern parts. Dangs has the highest rainfall of 190 cm in the south of Gujarat.


It lies between latitude 20º07' and 24º43' N and longitude 68º10' and 74º29' E. The northern boundary of the state is part of the Indo-Pak international boundary. It has 1600 km long coast line forming the western and south-western boundary. The state shares its boundary by Rajasthan in the north, Madhya Pradesh in the east and Maharastra in the south and south-east. The largest cities are Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Vadodara, Valsad, Surat, Rajkot, Probandar, Bhavnagar, Junagadh and Jamnagar. Ahmedabad is the state capital.


The climate of Gujarat varies from arid to semi-arid to sub humid tropical monsoon type. The climate is characterized by low rainfall with erratic distribution, extremes of diurnal and annual temperatures, low humidity and high wind velocity. The coastal part has high relative humidity and wind velocity. The annual rainfall in the state varies significantly. The mean annual rainfall ranges between 300 mm to 2800 mm. Normal rainfall of the state is 720.6 mm. Marked variations in seasonal range of temperatures occur at all non-coastal areas in the state, exhibiting the most characteristic phenomenon of the warm-dry continental climate. The temperature starts rising progressively through April, May and June. The temperature rise during this period is almost uniform all over the state. The mean annual temperature ranges between 26º and 28ºC in winter and 37ºC to 42ºC in summer.

Water Resources

Stream flow constitutes the principal source of fresh water in Gujarat. River flows are concentrated in the relatively short monsoon season. There are 17 rivers in Gujarat mainland, 71 in Saurashtra and 97 in Kutch region. Narmada, Tapi and Purna are perennial rivers.

Irrigation Projects

Hydro-Electric Projects

Inter-State Agreements


  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Mines & Minerals


Agriculture is the 34% peoples occupation of Gujarat. This state is the main producer of tobacco, cotton and groundnut in the country and provides inputs for important industries like textiles, oil and soap. Other important cash crops are Isabgol, Paddy, Wheat and Bajra. This state has led to a major thrust in milk production and the Gujarat Milk Marketing Federation, called the Amul, on the cooperative basis. The state is rich in flora and fauna. Forest species available in Gujarat are teak, khair, sadad, haldaryo and manual bamboos. Besides these, several medicinal herbs and fruit like guava, jamun are produced in plenty.


Gujarat is among the leading industrialised states in the country. The industrial structure in the state has been gradually diversifying with the development of industries like chemicals, petro-chemicals, fertiliser, engineering etc. The ancient port city of Surat, which was the centre of the gold and silver thread Zari industry, also developed the diamond cutting and polishing industry and weaving after breakdown of the major textile mills of Bombay. The Saurashtra region has been noted for the growth of engineering industry.
The Industrial 'Policy Gujarat 2000 AD and beyond' accords priority to promote identified Thrust Industries. These include electronics, engineering ancillaries, garments, gems and jewellery, food and agro processing industries, leather goods, labour intensive industries as well as 100% EOUs. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) has been assigned the role of developing industrial estates with infrastructure facilities.</p>

Mines & Minerals

Among the minerals in the state, non-metallic minerals are more important than metallic ones. There are large deposits of limestone, manganese, bauxite, lignite and gypsum besides fluorspar and dolomite. The fluorspar deposits in the Ambadungar area of the state are considered the largest in the world. Gujarat is the biggest producer of slat in the country. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission are discovered many new fields in the Ankleswar, Kalol, Cambay and Navagam areas of the state.


  • Irrigation
  • Transport
  • Health
  • Education
  • Telecommunication



The State has approximately 72,591 km of roads. The first expressway of the nation is under construction between Ahmedabad and Vadodara.


The state is well connected by railway network with other part of the country.


The main airport of Gujarat at Ahmedabad is connected with Mumbai, Delhi and other cities by daily services. Ahmedabad airport has now got the status of an International Airport. The State has nine other airports at Vadodara, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Surat, Jamnagar, Kandla, Keshod, Porbandar and Rajkot.


Gujarat has 40 ports of which Kandla is a major one. Kandla was developed in Kutch district as a major port by the Central Government to offset the loss of Karachi after partition of the country into India and Pakistan in 1947. Subsequently Porbandar, an intermediate port under the states control, was declared as a major port of the country, which brought it under the management of the Centre. During 1997-98, the Gujarat ports handled cargo of 257.30 lakh MT. Under the 'Port Policy' the State government is developing 10 deep water berthing ports of international standard of which six ports will be entirely private ports with private capital investment and four ports will be developed in Joint Sector Ports with major capital investment from private companies.


Religious spots like Dwarka, Somnath, Palitana, Pavagadh, Ambaji, Bhadreshwar, Shamlaji, Taranga and Girnar; Porbandar, birth place of Mahatma Gandhi, places of memorable monuments of architectural and archaeological surprises like Patan, Siddhpur Ghumli, Dabhoi, Vadnagar, Modhera, Lothal and Ahmedabad; beautiful beaches like Ahmedpur-Mandvi, Chorwad, Ubharat and Tithal; the hill station Saputra; Lion Sanctuary of Gir Forest and Wild Ass Sanctuary in Kachchh area are major tourist attractions in the State.

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