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ganga [2019/03/27 10:15]
Vipul Dua [Ganga]
ganga [2021/08/24 07:12] (current)
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 ====== Ganga ====== ====== Ganga ======
  
-[[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Ganga#​|« Go Back]]+[[:ganga|« Go Back]]
  
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 **Hydro Meterological Observation Stations Map** **Hydro Meterological Observation Stations Map**
  
-[[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​images/​8/​89/​Ganga_basin.png|{{http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​images/​thumb/​8/​89/​Ganga_basin.png/​550px-Ganga_basin.png?​nolink&​550x404|Hydro Meterological Observation Stations Map}}]]+{{:550px-ganga_basin.png?​nolink&​550x404}}
  
  
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 Predominant soil types found in the sub-basin are sandy, loamy, clay and their combination'​s such as sandy loam, salty clay loam and loamy sand soils. The culturable area of Ganga sub-basin is about 57.96 M. has which is 29.5% of the total culturable area of the country. Predominant soil types found in the sub-basin are sandy, loamy, clay and their combination'​s such as sandy loam, salty clay loam and loamy sand soils. The culturable area of Ganga sub-basin is about 57.96 M. has which is 29.5% of the total culturable area of the country.
  
-===== Linked view =====+=====   ​=====
  
-***Click on the highlighted river to get details**+\\
  
-River Overview Map  \\ (Generated Under India WRIS Project) 
  
-{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​49/​37?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​50/​37?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​51/​37?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​49/​38?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​50/​38?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​51/​38?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​49/​39?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​50/​39?​nolink&​}}{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​DEM/​MapServer/​tile/​3/​51/​39?​nolink&​}}+===== River System =====
  
-{{http://​india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​ArcGIS/​rest/​services/​Common/​Outside_India/​MapServer/​export?​nolink&​}} +The Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glaciers ​in the Himalayas at an elevation of about 7010m in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand and flows for a total length of about 2525 km up to its outfall into the Bay of Bengal through the former main course of Bhagirathi-HooghlyThe principal tributaries joining the river are the [[:yamuna_river_system|Yamuna]], the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the [[:​gandak_basin|Gandak]], the [[:​burhi_gandak_basin|Burhi Gandak]], the [[:​Kosi_Basin|Kosi]], the [[:​mahananda_basin|Mahananda]] and the [[:​Sone_Basin|Sone]]. Chambal and Betwa are also the two other important sub-tributaries.
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-===== River System =====+
  
-The Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glaciers in the Himalayas at an elevation of about 7010m in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand and flows for a total length of about 2525 km up to its outfall into the Bay of Bengal through the former main course of Bhagirathi-Hooghly. The principal tributaries joining the river are the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Yamuna_River_System|Yamuna]],​ the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Gandak_Basin|Gandak]],​ the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Burhi_Gandak_Basin|Burhi Gandak]], the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Kosi_Basin|Kosi]],​ the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Mahananda_Basin|Mahananda]] and the [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Sone_Basin|Sone]]. Chambal and Betwa are also the two other important sub-tributaries. 
  
 ===== Status of Surface Water Development ===== ===== Status of Surface Water Development =====
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 A sharp decline in the quality of Ganga water is due to increasing level of pollution from urban and industrial areas. The problem has arisen largely due to the discharge of untreated urban wastes and industrial effluents from the cascade of large and medium cities located along the course of Ganga and its tributaries. Although Ganga is considered as a holy river in mythology, people do not hesitate while dumping domestic and industrial waste in the river. Numerous cities located in the Ganga basin generate and discharge huge quantities of waste water, a large portion of which eventually reaches the river through natural drainage system. Over the years, the Ganga and its tributaries have become the channels of transport of industrial effluents and the drains for the wastewater of the cities. It is estimated that some 900 million litres of sewage is dumped into the Ganga every day; three-fourths of the pollution in the Ganga is from untreated municipal sewage. In particular the middle reach of the basin between Kanpur and Buxar is the most urbanized and industrialized,​ as also the most polluted segment of the basin. Municipal and industrial wastes with dangerous concentration find entry into the watercourse in this segment and pose a grave threat to society. \\ In the hilly reaches up to Rishikesh, Ganga water is quite clean except for sediments. From Rishikesh onwards, disposal of sewage into Ganga begins. Besides the municipal waste of Rishikesh and Haridwar, industrial units discharge partly treated effluents into the river. Haridwar City has a population of 1.5 lakh and nearly 60,000 people visit the city every day on an average. This number rises to a few lakh on important religious days and may go up to 15 lakh on the auspicious days during Kumbha Mela (fair). \\ Considerable lengths of sewer lines are clogged by silts that flow in from the adjoining hills. Further downstream from Haridwar, Ganga flows through Bijnor, Garhmukteshwar,​Narora and Kannauj. Here, water is not much polluted as these two towns do not have any large industry. Moving downstream, the situation changes for the worse at Kanpur from the quality point of view. Sewage from the city (population 2.7 million) coupled with untreated toxic waste discharge from about 150 industrial units results in severe damage to water quality. \\ The mean value of DO at 3 mg/l at Jajmau, near Kanpur, reflects the levels of pollution caused by discharge from 80 tanneries and other industries. At Allahabad with population of more than a million, municipal wastes are the major contributor to river pollution. Yamuna whose water is highly polluted joins Ganga at Sangam. Large volume of municipal and industrial waste is dumped in the river at Varanasi, a city with approximately 1.2 million population. The Varuna River, which joins the Ganga in the vicinity of Varanasi, receives waste from many drains. Besides, due to the religious belief that those who die in Varanasi are sure to go to heaven, on average, more than 40,000 dead bodies are cremated on the river bank and the ashes and remains are dumped in the river. \\ Entering in Bihar, a number of industries (including fertilizer and oil refining) have come up along Ganga River. Patna is the most populous city whose wastes are dumped in the river. At Kolkota in West Bengal, the Hooghly (Ganga) river basin is highly populated as the waste water from numerous industries as well as municipal sewage is dumped in the river. \\ In view of the magnitude of water quality problems in the Ganga basin, two actions plans were launched by the government of India: the Ganga action plan and the Yamuna action plan. A sharp decline in the quality of Ganga water is due to increasing level of pollution from urban and industrial areas. The problem has arisen largely due to the discharge of untreated urban wastes and industrial effluents from the cascade of large and medium cities located along the course of Ganga and its tributaries. Although Ganga is considered as a holy river in mythology, people do not hesitate while dumping domestic and industrial waste in the river. Numerous cities located in the Ganga basin generate and discharge huge quantities of waste water, a large portion of which eventually reaches the river through natural drainage system. Over the years, the Ganga and its tributaries have become the channels of transport of industrial effluents and the drains for the wastewater of the cities. It is estimated that some 900 million litres of sewage is dumped into the Ganga every day; three-fourths of the pollution in the Ganga is from untreated municipal sewage. In particular the middle reach of the basin between Kanpur and Buxar is the most urbanized and industrialized,​ as also the most polluted segment of the basin. Municipal and industrial wastes with dangerous concentration find entry into the watercourse in this segment and pose a grave threat to society. \\ In the hilly reaches up to Rishikesh, Ganga water is quite clean except for sediments. From Rishikesh onwards, disposal of sewage into Ganga begins. Besides the municipal waste of Rishikesh and Haridwar, industrial units discharge partly treated effluents into the river. Haridwar City has a population of 1.5 lakh and nearly 60,000 people visit the city every day on an average. This number rises to a few lakh on important religious days and may go up to 15 lakh on the auspicious days during Kumbha Mela (fair). \\ Considerable lengths of sewer lines are clogged by silts that flow in from the adjoining hills. Further downstream from Haridwar, Ganga flows through Bijnor, Garhmukteshwar,​Narora and Kannauj. Here, water is not much polluted as these two towns do not have any large industry. Moving downstream, the situation changes for the worse at Kanpur from the quality point of view. Sewage from the city (population 2.7 million) coupled with untreated toxic waste discharge from about 150 industrial units results in severe damage to water quality. \\ The mean value of DO at 3 mg/l at Jajmau, near Kanpur, reflects the levels of pollution caused by discharge from 80 tanneries and other industries. At Allahabad with population of more than a million, municipal wastes are the major contributor to river pollution. Yamuna whose water is highly polluted joins Ganga at Sangam. Large volume of municipal and industrial waste is dumped in the river at Varanasi, a city with approximately 1.2 million population. The Varuna River, which joins the Ganga in the vicinity of Varanasi, receives waste from many drains. Besides, due to the religious belief that those who die in Varanasi are sure to go to heaven, on average, more than 40,000 dead bodies are cremated on the river bank and the ashes and remains are dumped in the river. \\ Entering in Bihar, a number of industries (including fertilizer and oil refining) have come up along Ganga River. Patna is the most populous city whose wastes are dumped in the river. At Kolkota in West Bengal, the Hooghly (Ganga) river basin is highly populated as the waste water from numerous industries as well as municipal sewage is dumped in the river. \\ In view of the magnitude of water quality problems in the Ganga basin, two actions plans were launched by the government of India: the Ganga action plan and the Yamuna action plan.
  
-===== Water Resources ===== 
- 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Major_Medium_Irrigation_Projects_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Major Medium Irrigation Projects in Ganga Basin]] 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Dams_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Dams in Ganga Basin]] 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Barrages/​Weirs_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Barrages/​Weirs in Ganga Basin]] 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Lift_Stations_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Lift Stations in Ganga Basin]] 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Hydro_Electric_Projects_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Hydro Electric Projects in Ganga Basin]] 
-  - [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Power_Houses_in_Ganga_Basin|List of Powerhouses in Ganga Basin]] 
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-===== India 360° Aerial Panorama ===== 
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-==== Varanasi ==== 
- 
-Courtesy of [[http://​www.airpano.com/​|www.AirPano.com]] 
  
 ===== External links and references ===== ===== External links and references =====
  
-  - [[[https://nmcg.nic.in/|National Mission for Clean Ganga]]] +  - [[:https:​nmcg.nic.in|National Mission for Clean Ganga]]] 
-  - [[[http://gangapedia.iitk.ac.in/|Gangapedia]]] +  - [[:http:​gangapedia.iitk.ac.in|Gangapedia]]]
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-  * Page created by [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=User:​Rrscj|Rrscj]],​ 8 September 2011 +
-  * Contributors:​ [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=User:​Munish&​action=edit&​redlink=1|Munish]] x13, [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=User:​Y_paithankar|Y paithankar]] x12 +
-  * Last [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=Ganga&​diff=52845|modified]] by [[http://​www.india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/​wrpinfo/​index.php?​title=User:​Y_paithankar|Y paithankar]],​ 31 January 2018 +
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