Arunachal Pradesh

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Map of Arunachal Pradesh (Source: India-WRIS)



According to Indian mythology this region was known as ancient Vidarbha. The existence of this area was mentioned in Puran. The historical records are available from 16th Century onwards, when Ahom kings started ruling over Assam. The historical evidence indicates that not only was the area well known, but also the people living here had close relations with the rest of the country. From the extensive ruins it can be presumed that the whole of the north bank of river Brahmaputra, upto the foothills, was inhabited by the people who were advanced politically, culturally and in various other aspects. Modern History, in Arunachal Pradesh, begins with the inception of British rule in Assam after the treaty of Yandaboo concluded on the 24th February 1826. British made their way into the region and by 1838 had established a semblance of their rule here. Then this place was known as North East Frontier Agency (NEFA). In 1914 there was a treaty, called Shimla treaty, between China, Tibet and British rulers, under which the Tibetans and Chinese recognized the boundary between Tibet and NEFA.
Before 1962, Arunachal Pradesh was constitutionally a part of Assam. Because of its strategic importance, however, it was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs and subsequently by the Ministry of Home Affairs through the Governor of Assam. Gradually, the region was separated from the Governor of Assam's control and placed under a Chief Commissioner, later a Lt. Governor, was created into a Union Territory. On February 20th 1987 Arunachal Pradesh became a full-fledged state of India as the policy of giving the tribal regions their separate identity, as parts of India, had by then become national policy.


Arunachal Pradesh, situated in the extreme north-east of India is bounded by independent countries on three sides and by Assam and Nagaland states by one side. There are Bhutan, Tibet, China and Myanmar to the west, north-east, north and east of this state respectively, and to the south it sharing it boundaries with Indian states like Assam and Nagaland. It is the largest north eastern states in the country. The word 'Aruna' means charioteer of Sun god and 'Achal' means Mountain. In this state Sun appears first in India. The terrain consists of submonatane and mountainous ranges, sloping down to the plains of Assam, divided into valleys by the river Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap. The Brahmaputra, India's major river enters this state from Tibet and flows into Assam from where it goes down to Bangladesh before falling into Bay of Bengal.


Arunachal Pradesh formerly known as North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA) is called as “The Land of Rising Sun”. The state is situated in the northeastern part of India, bounded by China in the north, Assam and Nagaland in the south, Myanmar in the southeast and Bhutan in the west.


The weather and the climate of Arunachal Pradesh are quite distinct from the rest of the country. The climate of the state is dominated by the Himalayan system and the altitudinal variations. The climate is highly hot and humid at the lower altitudes and in the valleys covered by swampy dense forest particularly in the eastern section, while it becomes exceedingly cold in higher altitudes. The rainfall of Arunachal Pradesh in amongst the heaviest in the country.


  1. Agriculture
  2. Industry
  3. Mines & Minerals


Agriculture is the main source of earning of Arunachal Pradesh. The state gets as much as 500 centimeters of rainfall and this accounts for the large number of rivers and lakes in the region apart from extensive forests which have induced the people to adopt the 'Jhum' form of cultivation in which a select area of the forests is burnt and used for cultivation. In the following years the farmers shift to another forest plot which leads to the cultivation being called shifting cultivation. About 53% of the total cultivated area is under Jhum and the rest under permanent cultivation. Due to good rain rice the major crop. Other important crops are maize, millet, wheat, pulses, potato, oil seeds and sugarcane. Ecological conditions of Arunachal Pradesh are congenial for the growth of horticulture. Besides this there are plenty of oranges, guavas, pineapples, lemon, litchi, papaya, and temperature fruits like apple, plum, pear, peach, cherries, walnut, almonds are grown.
Various steps were taken to diversify the agriculture economy by encouraging the cultivation of cash crops like potatoes, and horticulture crops like apple, oranges, guavas, and pineapples, etc. Many important projects such as Regional Seed Foundation Potato Farm at Tawang, Regional Apple Nursery at Dirang, and State Horticulture Farm at Sheragaon were set up with the help of North-Eastern Council to boost agro-horticulture activities. Apart from these Gramsevak Training Centre and farmers Training Centre located at various parts of the state impart training in scientific methods of rural development and agriculture respectively. In this way pre-agricultural level of technology in 1950 is now firmly established in the world of hybrid varieties, genes and biotechnology.


There are no heavy industries in Arunachal Pradesh. But remarkable progress has been achieved in field of cottage and small-scale industries.Industrial development in this state has received fresh impetus. These industries comprises of sawmill, rice mill, fruit preservation, soap and candle making, steel fabrication and wood works industries etc. Apart from this one mini cement plant, a fruit processing plant and a citronella oil industry also registered. Weaving Basketry and Carpet making of this state shows a good progress. Technical education is being provided by industrial training institute (Roing and Daporijo) to improve the skill of the workforce. Local entrepreneur are also enthusiastic about tea plantations in the state.

Mines & Minerals

Arunachal Pradesh has a vast reserve of mineral oils and gas. This state has also coal reserves. Coal is explored from Namchik-Namphuk mines in Tirap district. Besides coal oil and gas there is a huge reserve of dolomite, limestone, graphite, marble, lead and zinc etc. It is also assumed that there is the reserve of iron and copper. The main mineral rich districts are Lohit, Tirap, Chanlang, West Kameng, Upper Subansiri, Dibangghati etc.


  1. Irrigation
  2. Power
  3. Transport
  4. Health
  5. Education
  6. Telecommunication


Jhum fields on the slant of hills, under shifting cultivation, are rain-fed, patches of land under terrace and wet-rice cultivation, particularly the river line tracts and along foothill belt, are irrigated usually be by small gravity channels and diversion weirs.Pumping sets are also used for irrigation of smallholdings.


There is a tremendous potential of hydroelectric generation in this state.



Daporijo, Pasighat, Tezu and Ziro are airlinked by the Vayudoot service.


Bomdila and Tawang are the important tourist places among various tourist places in the state. These two places are famous for their orchards and gardens. Indian biggest Buddha Vihar, which is the pilgrimages of Mahajan Buddha Community, is near to Bomdila. Buddha idol of this vihar is gold plated. Snowfall occurs through out the year over here. Famous Ita-Mahal, and Ganga Jhil are located in Itanagar. Pilgrimages taking holly bath in the occasion of 'Chaitra Sankranti' Fair in Itanagar. Besides these, Malinithan and Bhismaknagar are important tourist places from historical point of view. In this place there was a stone built palace of 800 years old. The Parasuram Kund and Namdapha wild animal reserve forest Changlang are one of the major tourist attraction. Cat category tiger, Panther, Snow Panther and Black Panther are famous in Namdapha. There was a tiger reservation scheme for tiger in 1983. Tipi, Likabali, Pasighat, Along, Tezu, Miao, Roing, Daporijo and Khonsa are important tourist places.

(Data Source: IndiaStat Website)

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