Andhra Pradesh

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Map of Andhra Pradesh (Source: India-WRIS)



Andhra People are originated from Aryans race living in North India migrated to south of Vindhyas. The ancestors of Andhra people were mixed with non-Aryans. According to History Andhra Civilization started from 236 B.C. (the year of death of Samrat Ashoka). Several dynasty ruled Andhra like Sat-Bahanas, Sak, Ikshvakus, Poorvi Chalukya, Kakatiya, etc. Gradually Andhra becomes the place of 'Nizam' (emerged from Vijay Nagar dynasty, Kutub Shahi, Mir Qumruddin etc.). In 17th Century British Raj with Nizam's State and some other districts established the single province Madras. Soon after India became a free nation in August 1947, the demand for Andhra state grew stronger but the Nizam had other ideas and the ruler of the day, Osman Ali, entertained hopes that his state could become a separate state, sovereign and independent. But in September 1948, the government of free India, under the guidance of Sardar Patel, launched a big offensive to put an end to the Nizam's efforts to create a sovereign state of Hyderabad and to his constant pinpricks to free India. On 1st October 1953, Telugu speaking areas were separated form the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State formed. The Telangana portion was added to the Andhra and in 1st November 1956 (by State Reorganization Act, 1956) it was become a full-fledged state Andhra Pradesh.


Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, on the West by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by Bay of Bengal, with a coastline of 974 km. Krishna, Godavari and Pennar are the main rivers of the state. After Vindhyas, the southern India starts. So Andhra Pradesh is the link between north and south of India. The state is broadly divided into three major regions viz. the Circars or Coastal districts, which are well developed and enjoy greater degree of affluence than the other regions, Rayalaseema which is close to the coastal districts and where rainfall is less than coastal districts and drought conditions prevail sometimes, and the Telengana region of the former princely state of Nizam's of Hyderabad, which is close to Maharashtra's Marathwada region and some parts of Karnataka. The rainfall in the area is not much and the forest cover is, therefore, thin while the rocks are also porous in nature.


Andhra Pradesh situated in the southern part of India is the fifth largest state and was formed on 1st November 1956. It has longest coast line (972 km) amongst all states in India. The state is bounded by Tamil Nadu in the south, Karnataka and Maharashtra in west and Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north. Hyderabad is the state capital. Andhra Pradesh is the seventh most populous state in the country.


The state has a tropical climate. The average temperature during the cooler months of December and January is 28°C, and in the summer months of May and June the temperature reaches 40°C. Most parts of the state in summer are hot and humid. Hyderabad, the state’s capital however, can be hot and dry in the peak summer month of May. The annual average temperature is 31.5°C. The state is principally fed by the southwest monsoon while the northeast monsoon contributes about one-third of rainfall. The east coast region has been prone to disastrous cyclonic storms, which have destroyed much life and the livelihood of the villagers in the area. Rainfall mainly occurs during the monsoon period of June to September while it is only 3 cm between December and March. About two thirds of rain, falls in the northeastern part of the state.

Water Resources

Andhra Pradesh state is rich in water resources. River Godavari is the largest and broadest river in the southern India, which originates at Triambakeshwar near Nasik in Maharashtra. River Krishna enters the state at Alampur after having originated at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra. Tungabhadra is an important tributary of the river Krishna. Nagarjunasagar Dam at Nandi Konda, Srisailam project at Srisailam and Prakasam barrage at Vijayawada, are constructed on this river. Pennar, Vamsadhara and Nagavali are other important rivers. All the rivers are rain fed and of great economic significance because they are the source for hydropower and irrigation. The two major lakes in the state are the Kolleru and Pulicat. While the Kolleru lake lies in the delta between the rivers Krishna and the Godavari, the Pulicat lake is located in the southern tip of Nellore district, close to the sea. Andhra Pradesh state is rich in reservoirs and tank resources.


  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Mines & Minerals


Agriculture is the main source of occupation of the state. Rice is the major crop and staple food of the state and contributing about 80% to 85% of the total food-grain production of the state. The state is surplus in rice production. Other important crops are Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi, Small Millets, Pulses, Castor, Tobacco, Cotton Sugarcane, Groundnut and Banana. The state accounts for about 55% of the country's entire production of castor and 94% of Virginia tobacco. Important forests products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casuarina, bamboo, soft wood, etc.


There are several major industries are in operation in Andhra Pradesh, mainly in Visakhapatnam and Hyderabad clusters. The main industries are machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipment, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Visakhapatnam ship building industry is very famous.In the information Technology era Andhra Pradesh is one of the pioneering state. Hyderabad is the largest Information Technology (IT) parks of its kind in Asia, was launched on April 28th 1997. The State Government is also promoting Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Hyderabad. IIIT is a unique concept, being conceived as an industry driven, industry driven, industry financed and industry managed institution. Hyderabad is known as 'Silicon Valley' of Asia.

Mines & Minerals

Andhra Pradesh is enriched with various minerals. It stands second in deposits of minerals of strategic importance and sixth with regard to their valued produced. This state has the largest deposit of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. It accounts 93% of the India's total production of barites. This state ranks sixth in the production of manganese ore, second in mica and limestone production. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire south India located in Andhra Pradesh. Other important minerals founds in the state are copper ore, bauxite, iron ore, lead-zinc, tungsten, diamond, graphite, kaolin, Phosphate minerals, kyanite and sillimanite, calcite, zircon, corundum, etc.


  1. Irrigation
  2. Power
  3. Transport
  4. Education
  5. Health
  6. Telecommunication


After independence several important schemes implemented like Nagarjunasagar project, Prakasam Barrage, Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage, Tungabhadra Low-level canal, Kurnool-Cuddapah canal, Kadam project, Romperu drainage project and Upper Pennar project. The projects under the implementation phase are Sriramsagar, Vamsadhara, Srisalim right branch canal, Yeluru Reservoir Scheme, Godavari delta system, etc. Andhra Pradesh is the first Indian state involved in farmers' management of irrigation sources. The Andhra Pradesh Farmers' Management of Irrigation Systems Act, 1997 came into effect from 19th April 1997. Water users associations were formed as per this act. There are 10,292 water user associations and 174 distributory committees were formed and Rs.164 crore allocated to these associations to make them functionally and economically viable. For fully rehabilitation of all major and minor irrigation schemes in the state, government in 1999-2000 has allocated Rs.190.993 crore.


The major power projects of the state are-the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel Projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal projects. Main Hydel power generation projects are Srisailam Hydro Electric Project (installed capacity of 770 MW) and Nagarjunasagar Complex (installed capacity of 960 MW), whereas Vijayawada Thermal Power Station and Kothagudem Thermal Power Station are the main source of thermal power generation with installed capacity of 1260 MW and 1180 MW respectively. Simhadri Thermal Power Station with installed capacity of 1000 MW aims at supplying the entire power generated to the state.



Both national and international flights are operated from the state. Important airports are located in Hyderabad, Tirupati, Visakhapatnam. Apart from those some airports connected via Vayudoot service are - Vijayawada, Cuddapah, Rajahmundry, Ramagundam, and Warrangal. International flight are operated from the state are Hyderabad to Kuwait, Muscat, Sharjah and Singapore.


Visakhapatnam is the major ports of the country. Minor ports are located in Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Bheemunipatnam, Krishnapatnam, Vadarevu and Kalingapatnam.


State's main tourist centre is Charminar. To solve the draught problem in the town Mohammed Koolie Shah built it in 1591. Jama Masjid, near by Charminar was built in 1594 by Koyalee Kutub Shah is the Hyderabad's oldest mosque, is an important tourist centre. Mecca Masjid, 4 km away from Charminar, was built in 1614 by Abdulla Kutub Shah, is the biggest mosque in the Southern India. Warrangal about 140 km north east of Hyderabad city is famous for its Lake and Temple. A Fort in the King Ganapati Dev era (13th Century) is located in Warrangal. Thousand Pillar Temple (famous for its sculpture) is located just beside this antique fort. Apart from these there are important tourist places in the state like Raja Mahal, Chandragiri, Gopuram of Veerabhadra Swami Temple, Khush Mahal, Ramappa Temple, Rama Temple, Famous Rocks at Jubilee Hills, Tirupathi, Kanaka Durga Temple, Salarjung Museum, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakunda, etc. As part of Buddha Purnima Project, 33 life size statues of eminent Telugu personalities of the state were erected on Tunk Bund of Hussainsagar Lake in Hyderabad. A giant statue of Lord Buddha of height of about 60 feet has been erected on Gibraltar rock in Hussainsagar Lake, which separates Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities. Necklace Road is the additional attraction at Hussainsagar Lake. About 150 km from Hyderabad a reserve forest located in Nagarjunasagar, major tourist attraction opened for tourist from October-June.

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